CHEMISTRY FORM 1
i Common Chemistry Laboratory Chemicals
ii Common Chemistry Laboratory Apparatus
iii Safety in the Chemistry Laboratory
iv Why we should learn Chemistry
1. INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY
- 1.1 What is matter?
- 1.2 What is Chemistry?
- 1.3 What does matter consist of?
- 1.4 Are the particles in matter stationary?
- 1.5 Arrangement, distance, and attraction between particles
- 1.6 Properties of matter (volume, shape and compression)
- 1.7 Conductors and non-conductors
- 1.8 Sources of heat
- 1.9 Bunsen burner
- 1.10 Role of Chemistry in society
2. SIMPLE CLASSIFICATION OF SUBSTANCES AND SEPERATION OF MIXTURES
- 2.1 Pure substances
- 2.2 Mixtures
- 2.3 Separation of Mixtures
- 2.4 Separation of solid-solid mixture
- 2.5 Separation of insoluble solid-liquid mixture
- 2.6 Separation of soluble solid-liquid mixture (solution)
- 2.7 Separation of immiscible liquid-liquid mixture
- 2.8 Separation of miscible liquid-liquid mixtures (solution)
- 2.9 Separation of a liquid-gas mixture
- 2.10 Selecting and using appropriate methods of separating mixtures
- 2.11 Kinetic theory of matter
- 2.12 Classification by physical states
- 2.13 Effect of heat on physical states
- 2.14 Effect of impurities on melting and boiling points
- 2.15 Permanent and non-permanent changes
- 2.16 Definitions, chemical symbols and equations
3. ACIDS, BASES AND INDICATORS
- 3.1 Simple acid-base indicators
- 3.2 Universal indicators and pH scale
- 3.3 Reactions of acids with metals
- 3.4 Reactions of acids with carbonates and hydrogen-carbonates
- 3.5 Reactions of acids with bases
- 3.6 Effects of acids on substances
- 3.7 Applications of acids and bases
4. AIR AND COMBUSTION
- 4.1 Composition of Air
- 4.2 Fractional distillation of liquid air
- 4.3 Rusting
- 4.4 Oxygen
- 4.5 Burning of substances in air
- 4.6 Atmospheric pollution
5. WATER AND HYDROGEN
- 5.1 Candle wax and water
- 5.2 Reactions of metals with liquid water
- 5.3 Reaction of metals with steam
- 5.4 Preparation of hydrogen gas
Acids, Bases and Indicators: Applications of acids and bases
3.0 Acids, Bases and Indicators
3.7 Applications of acids and bases
Some uses of bases and acids
- Soil pH is measured to determine the kind of crops suitable for the soil. Spinach, for example, does well on acidic soil.
- Being basic, wood ash can be added to acidic soil to reduce acidity of the soil.
- Aluminium and magnesium hydroxides are used as anti-acid tablets.
- Sodium hydroxide is used in the manufacture of bar soap and paper industry.
- Potassium hydroxide is used in the manufacture of milder toilet soap (for bathing)
- Calcium hydroxide (lime) is mixed with cement to plaster walls, and the oxide is used in the manufacture of cement and toothpaste.
- Vinegar, an acid, is used to preserve perishable foods.