CHEMISTRY FORM 2
- 1.1 Structure of the atom
- 1.2 Atomic Number and Mass Number
- 1.3 Isotopes
- 1.4 Energy levels and electron arrangement
- 1.5 Development of the Periodic Table
- 1.6 Relative Atomic Mass and Isotopes
- 1.7 Ion Formation
- 1.8 Chemical Formulae
- 1.9 Chemical Equations
- 2.1 Alkali metals (Group I elements)
- 2.2 Alkali Earth Metals (Group II elements)
- 2.3 Halogens (Group VII elements)
- 2.4 Noble gases (Group VIII elements)
- 2.5 Properties and Trends Across the Periodic Table
- 3.1 Bond
- 3.2 Ionic bond
- 3.3 Giant ionic structure
- 3.4 Covalent bond
- 3.5 Co-ordinate bond
- 3.6 Molecular structures
- 3.7 Giant covalent structures
- 3.8 Metallic Bond
- 3.9 Types of bond across a period
- 3.10 Oxides of elements in Period 3
- 3.11 Chlorides of Period 3 elements
- 4.1 What is a salt?
- 4.2 Types of salt
- 4.3 Solubility of salts in water
- 4.4 Methods of preparing salts
- 4.4.1 Reacting a Metal with an Acid
- 4.4.2 Reacting an Acid with a Base (Neutralization)
- 4.4.3 Reacting an Acid with a Carbonate (or hydrogencarbonate of metal)
- 4.4.4 Combining elements Directly (Direct Combination of elements)
- 4.4.5 Precipitation (Double decomposition)
- 4.5 Action of heat on salts
- 4.6 Uses of salts
- 5.1 Electrical conduction
- 5.2 Electrical conductivity of molten substances
- 5.3 Electrical conductivity of substances in aqueous state
- 5.4 Electrolysis
- 5.5 Applications of electrolysis
- 6.1 Allotropes of carbon
- 6.2 Chemical properties of carbon
- 6.3 Carbon (IV) oxide
- 6.4 Carbon (II) oxide (CO)
- 6.5 Large scale production of sodium carbonate and sodium hydrogencarbonate
- 6.6 Effect of carbon (II) oxide and carbon (IV) oxide on the environment
- 6.7 Carbon cycle
Carbon and some of its compounds: Chemical properties of carbon
6.0 Carbon and some of its compounds
6.2 Chemical properties of carbon
6.2.1 Reaction of carbon with oxygen (pure or in air)
Figure 6.2.1 Burning of carbon in oxygen
Observe the videos showing the burning of carbon in oxygen.
(courtesy Youtube-Combustion of Carbon in Oxygen by revisionhelper helper)
(courtesy Youtube-9. Carbon burning in air - Air and its constituents by sangguru)
(courtesy Youtube-Burning coal in pure oxygen by Felix Letkemnn)
- With what colour of flame does carbon burn in pure oxygen? Check the position of carbon in the Periodic Table.
- To which Group of the Periodic Table does carbon belong?
- Why is carbon expected to be reactive?
- What is the normal valency of carbon?
- Oxygen is in Group VI. Write the formula of expected product when carbon burns in oxygen. How can we test the product?
- Write the chemical equation for the burning of carbon in oxygen.
Figure 6.2.1 Charcoal burnt in domestic charcoal burner
Caution: Cutting down of trees and burning charcoal cause serious threats to the environment and climate. We should plant trees and use solar energy, biogas or electricity if available. Although burning biogas also produdces carbon (IV) oxide, it saves trees from use as firewood.
- Figure 6.2.1 shows the effect of burning charcoal, an amorphous carbon, in a domestic charcoal burner. What is the evidence (reason for believing) that charcoal is not pure carbon?
- Are the impurities likely to be compounds of metals or non-metals? Explain (Hint: structure and physical state).
Answers to Questions 6.2.1
6.2.2 Reaction of carbon with copper (II) oxide (and other metal oxides)
Figure 6.2.2 Reaction of carbon with copper (II) oxide
(courtesy Youtube-Carbon reduction of Copper Oxide by CLEAPSS)
- Describe the observations made when a mixture of carbon and copper (II) oxide is heated and the gaseous product bubbled through calcium hydroxide solution.
- Name the products of the reaction.
- Write the equation for the reaction.
- The order of reactivity of elements from the highest to lowest is: K, Na, Ca, Mg, Al, C, Zn, Fe, Pb, Cu. Name any two other metal oxides you would expect to react with carbon in a similar way. Explain your answer.
- Write equations for the reactions between carbon and each of the two other metal oxides you have named in 4.
Answers to Questions 6.2.2
6.2.3 Reaction of carbon with concentrated sulphuric acid and nitric acid
(courtesy Youtube-Carbon reacting with sulphuric acid by Joseph Rabari)
- For the reaction between carbon and concentrated sulphuric acid, water, sulphur (IV) oxide and carbon (IV) oxide are the products. Write the equation for the reaction.
- How can we show that water is produced?
- For the reaction with concentrated nitric acid, water, nitrogen (IV) oxide and carbon (IV) oxide are produced. Write the equation for the reaction.
Answers to Questions 6.2.3