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CHEMISTRY FORM 1


i Common Chemistry Laboratory Chemicals
ii Common Chemistry Laboratory Apparatus
iii Safety in the Chemistry Laboratory
iv Why we should learn Chemistry
1. INTRODUCTION TO CHEMISTRY
2. SIMPLE CLASSIFICATION OF SUBSTANCES AND SEPERATION OF MIXTURES
3. ACIDS, BASES AND INDICATORS
4. AIR AND COMBUSTION
5. WATER AND HYDROGEN
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Acids, Bases and Indicators: Effects of acids on substances

3.0 Acids, Bases and Indicators


3.6 Effects of acids on substances

We saw that carbon (IV) oxide turned wet blue litmus red, due to the carbonic acid it formed. It is acidic. Since it is part of the air, rain water is also acidic. But, the acidity of carbon (IV) oxide is not a problem, because it is a weak acid.


Acidic pollutants such as sulphur (IV) oxide and chlorine, from industries, form stronger acids of pH below 5.6. Rain water with such pH values is called acid rain. Acid rain destroys vegetation, crops and buildings.


Moreover, some acidic chemicals from industries leak directly into rivers and water bodies where they poison and kill aquatic life. We should be on the look-out to protect our environment.



Summary of acids and bases

Acids Bases
Have sour taste Have bitter taste
Turn blue litmus red Turn red litmus blue
Neutralize bases Neutralize acids
React with carbonates and hydrogencarbonates to form salt, water and carbon (IV) oxide Oxides and hydroxides of metals
React with metals to form salt and hydrogen