CHEMISTRY FORM 1
- 1.1 What is matter?
- 1.2 What is Chemistry?
- 1.3 What does matter consist of?
- 1.4 Are the particles in matter stationary?
- 1.5 Arrangement, distance, and attraction between particles
- 1.6 Properties of matter (volume, shape and compression)
- 1.7 Conductors and non-conductors
- 1.8 Sources of heat
- 1.9 Bunsen burner
- 1.10 Role of Chemistry in society
- 2.1 Pure substances
- 2.2 Mixtures
- 2.3 Separation of Mixtures
- 2.4 Separation of solid-solid mixture
- 2.5 Separation of insoluble solid-liquid mixture
- 2.6 Separation of soluble solid-liquid mixture (solution)
- 2.7 Separation of immiscible liquid-liquid mixture
- 2.8 Separation of miscible liquid-liquid mixtures (solution)
- 2.9 Separation of a liquid-gas mixture
- 2.10 Selecting and using appropriate methods of separating mixtures
- 2.11 Kinetic theory of matter
- 2.12 Classification by physical states
- 2.13 Effect of heat on physical states
- 2.14 Effect of impurities on melting and boiling points
- 2.15 Permanent and non-permanent changes
- 2.16 Definitions, chemical symbols and equations
- 3.1 Simple acid-base indicators
- 3.2 Universal indicators and pH scale
- 3.3 Reactions of acids with metals
- 3.4 Reactions of acids with carbonates and hydrogen-carbonates
- 3.5 Reactions of acids with bases
- 3.6 Effects of acids on substances
- 3.7 Applications of acids and bases
- 4.1 Composition of Air
- 4.2 Fractional distillation of liquid air
- 4.3 Rusting
- 4.4 Oxygen
- 4.5 Burning of substances in air
- 4.6 Atmospheric pollution
- 5.1 Candle wax and water
- 5.2 Reactions of metals with liquid water
- 5.3 Reaction of metals with steam
- 5.4 Preparation of hydrogen gas
Water and Hydrogen: Reactions of metals with liquid water
5.0 Water and Hydrogen
5.2 Reactions of metals with liquid water
How does liquid water react with metals?
Materials and substances required
- Potassium, sodium, and calcium metals
- Trough containing water
- Litmus paper, tongs, knife
The experiment can be repeated using sodium metal. The solution formed in each case may be tested using litmus paper. Also, compare the vigour (how fast) of reactions for the three metals.
Observe the videos, reaction of potassium metal with cold water
and reaction of sodium metal with cold water. (courtesy Youtube - reaction of sodium and water by North Carolina School of Science and Mathematics). Then answer Questions 5.2.
- Describe what is observed when a small piece of potassium metal is added to water in a trough.
- State the observations when a fresh piece of sodium metal is added to water in a trough or beaker.
- Why does reaction with potassium need more space?
- Why would it not be advisable to use hot water or steam to study their reaction with potassium or sodium?
- Phosphorus is usually stored in water. Which liquid do you think would be suitable for storing potassium and sodium? Why?
- Reactions of potassium and sodium with water produce the same gas. Name the gas.
- How is the gas tested?
- What is the effect on phenolphthalein of the solution formed in these reactions? Why?
- How would this solution affect litmus paper?
- Name the substances produced by potassium and sodium and which affect litmus paper.
Answers to Questions 5.2(a)
For calcium, the reaction may be carried out in a test tube, and the gas tested using a burning splint. A small amount of freshly cleaned calcium turnings is used.
Open the link, reaction of calcium with cold water
- Describe what is observed when calcium metal is added to water.
- Reactions between metals and water produce similar products. Name the products of reaction between calcium and water.
- How would the solution formed affect litmus paper?
- The same gas is produced in the reactions involving potassium and sodium.
Write equations for the reactions between
- Potassium and water
- Sodium and water
- Calcium and water
- Complete the following general equation for the reactions between metal and water.
- Arrange the three metals in the order of their reactivity with water, beginning with the most reactive.
Answers to Questions 5.2(b)