CHEMISTRY FORM 1
- 1.1 What is matter?
- 1.2 What is Chemistry?
- 1.3 What does matter consist of?
- 1.4 Are the particles in matter stationary?
- 1.5 Arrangement, distance, and attraction between particles
- 1.6 Properties of matter (volume, shape and compression)
- 1.7 Conductors and non-conductors
- 1.8 Sources of heat
- 1.9 Bunsen burner
- 1.10 Role of Chemistry in society
- 2.1 Pure substances
- 2.2 Mixtures
- 2.3 Separation of Mixtures
- 2.4 Separation of solid-solid mixture
- 2.5 Separation of insoluble solid-liquid mixture
- 2.6 Separation of soluble solid-liquid mixture (solution)
- 2.7 Separation of immiscible liquid-liquid mixture
- 2.8 Separation of miscible liquid-liquid mixtures (solution)
- 2.9 Separation of liquid-gas mixture
- 2.10 Selecting and using appropriate methods of separating mixtures
- 2.11 Kinetic theory of matter
- 2.12 Classification by physical states
- 2.13 Effect of heat on physical states
- 2.14 Effect of impurities on melting and boiling points
- 2.15 Permanent and non-permanent changes
- 2.16 Definitions, chemical symbols and equations
- 3.1 Simple acid-base indicators
- 3.2 Universal indicators and pH scale
- 3.3 Reactions of acids with metals
- 3.4 Reactions of acids with carbonates and hydrogen-carbonates
- 3.5 Reactions of acids with bases
- 3.6 Effects of acids on substances
- 3.7 Applications of acids and bases
- 4.1 Composition of Air
- 4.2 Fractional distillation of liquid air
- 4.3 Rusting
- 4.4 Oxygen
- 4.5 Burning of substances in air
- 4.6 Atmospheric pollution
- 5.1 Candle wax and water
- 5.2 Reactions of metals with liquid water
- 5.3 Reaction of metals with steam
- 5.4 Preparation of hydrogen gas
Safety in the Chemistry Laboratory
Safety in the Chemistry Laboratory
How can we ensure safety in a Chemistry laboratory?
Because they use electricity, laboratories pose the risks of electric fire and shock. For a Chemistry laboratory, there are additional risks due to
- Chemicals that burst into flame when left open
- Chemicals that easily catch fire and burn when ignited (flammable)
- Corrosive chemicals that burn the skin
- Poisonous chemicals
- Air pollution by poisonous gases produced in the laboratory
- Accidental breaking of glass apparatus (many are made of glass)
- Sharp broken pieces of glass that can hurt us
- Leaking laboratory gas which can catch fire and burn the building, among others.
But all these can be avoided if we follow laboratory safety rules.
Questions on Making Safety Rules
For each of the risks 1-7 above, suggest rules that can protect you, other students, and Chemistry apparatus.
Answers to Questions on Making Safety Rules
Normally, there are safety symbols on the bottles to warn us about the chemicals they contain. Three of the main warning symbols are as follows.
NB: Most of the chemicals shown in the pictures (Common Chemistry Laboratory Chemicals) are poisonous, and many are either flammable or corrosive although not indicated on the bottle.
Learn the safety rules made in your class or available in your textbook.
Questions on Explaining Safety Rules
- From the pictures of chemicals provided in the link, Common Chemistry Laboratory Chemicals, identify
- one liquid which is corrosive
- two chemicals which are flammable
- The following are examples of General Safety Rules. Suggest why each of them is important.
- Read to understand all instructions for an experiment and follow them exactly as they are written. If in doubt, ask the teacher.
- Never perform experiments that are not authorized by your teacher. Always obtain permission before experimenting on your own.
- Never handle any equipment unless you have permission from the teacher.
- Take care not to spill any materials in the laboratory. If a spill occurs, ask your teacher immediately about the proper clean-up procedure.
- Dispose of all materials according to instructions given by the teacher. Never empty solid matter into the sink.
- Never eat in the laboratory. Wash your hands before and after each experiment.
- Never play or run in the laboratory.
- Learn the location and functions of all laboratory safety equipment.
- Follow any other rules such as on wearing masks, keeping physical distance and handwashing as given by the government and school.