CHEMISTRY FORM 1
- 1.1 What is matter?
- 1.2 What is Chemistry?
- 1.3 What does matter consist of?
- 1.4 Are the particles in matter stationary?
- 1.5 Arrangement, distance, and attraction between particles
- 1.6 Properties of matter (volume, shape and compression)
- 1.7 Conductors and non-conductors
- 1.8 Sources of heat
- 1.9 Bunsen burner
- 1.10 Role of Chemistry in society
- 2.1 Pure substances
- 2.2 Mixtures
- 2.3 Separation of Mixtures
- 2.4 Separation of solid-solid mixture
- 2.5 Separation of insoluble solid-liquid mixture
- 2.6 Separation of soluble solid-liquid mixture (solution)
- 2.7 Separation of immiscible liquid-liquid mixture
- 2.8 Separation of miscible liquid-liquid mixtures (solution)
- 2.9 Separation of liquid-gas mixture
- 2.10 Selecting and using appropriate methods of separating mixtures
- 2.11 Kinetic theory of matter
- 2.12 Classification by physical states
- 2.13 Effect of heat on physical states
- 2.14 Effect of impurities on melting and boiling points
- 2.15 Permanent and non-permanent changes
- 2.16 Definitions, chemical symbols and equations
- 3.1 Simple acid-base indicators
- 3.2 Universal indicators and pH scale
- 3.3 Reactions of acids with metals
- 3.4 Reactions of acids with carbonates and hydrogen-carbonates
- 3.5 Reactions of acids with bases
- 3.6 Effects of acids on substances
- 3.7 Applications of acids and bases
- 4.1 Composition of Air
- 4.2 Fractional distillation of liquid air
- 4.3 Rusting
- 4.4 Oxygen
- 4.5 Burning of substances in air
- 4.6 Atmospheric pollution
- 5.1 Candle wax and water
- 5.2 Reactions of metals with liquid water
- 5.3 Reaction of metals with steam
- 5.4 Preparation of hydrogen gas
Why we should Learn Chemistry
Observe the pictures of Common Chemistry Laboratory Chemicals.
- Which other chemicals look like sodium chloride?
- Which liquid chemicals look like water?
- Suppose the labels are removed, would you be able to identify the chemicals?
Many substances look pretty much the same. For example, sodium chloride, which is used to salt food, looks like compounds of calcium, magnesium and potassium, most of which are poisonous. Sulphuric acid, ammonia solution, and sodium hydroxide solution look like clean water.
Knowledge of Chemistry helps us to identify substances, enabling us to know what is safe or dangerous to use. Besides, it is applied in the manufacture of medicines, fertilizers, clothes, steel and building materials, beauty products, soap, baking powder, and many other products used at home.
Also, Chemistry prepares one to become a doctor, pharmacist, manufacturer, laboratory technologist, chemist and researcher, among many other possible careers.
Medicines and drugs
There are many substances around us, including natural, man-made, safe, and poisonous substances. Some of them affect us physically by giving us energy or stopping pain, or mentally by causing false happiness and confidence (e.g. alcohol). Substances which affect us physically or mentally are called drugs.
Some drugs are used by doctors in small amounts to treat patients and
are called medicinal drugs or medicines. But even medicine for
one person may be dangerous for another. For example, liver salt and aspirin
are safe on adults but not children. We should therefore seek advice from a
doctor and not prescribe medicines for ourselves.
Use of drugs without prescription from a doctor, or not following instructions is called drug abuse or substance abuse and must be avoided. Curiously, the most dangerous things in life normally appear cool, enticing, pleasurable, and readily available. Let us beware!